You are here: Home Clinical Epidemiology Research Health Economics

Health Economics

Key Person: Klaus Kaier

Collaborators: Werner Vach, Gabriele Dreier, Claudia Schmoor, Jochen Reinöhl


Health care represents a collection of services, products, institutions, regulations and people that account for about 12 per cent of the German gross domestic product in 2011. Against a background of increasing demands on health care, health economics tries to answer the question on how to allocate limited health care resources efficiently. Efficiency, however, is not necessarily about cuttings costs, but rather about answering different questions on how to derive the maximum total benefit from the available resources.

In the same way as evidence-based medicine underlines the need to use the best available formal evidence on effectiveness, health economics grounds on the need to formally assess the implications of choices over the deployment of resources. As resource use may preferably expressed in costs, a number of economic evaluation techniques have been developed to contrast costs and clinical outcomes of competing treatment alternatives in order to help identify the most efficient ways of patient care.

At University Medical Centre Freiburg, the working group on health economics was recently established as cooperation between the Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, the Clinical Trials Unit as well as the University Heart Centre. We may refer to a strong methodological background in regression modelling and econometrics. In general, we methodologically accompany economic evaluations across all types of clinical research but have a strong focus on the routine implementation of economic evaluation in clinical trials.



  • Kaier, K. (2013): The impact of pricing and patent expiration on demand for pharmaceuticals: an examination of the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, Health Economics, Policy and Law, 8(1): 7-20.
  • Reinöhl J., Gutmann A., Kollum M., von Zur Mühlen C., Baumbach H., Avlar M., Moser M., Bode C. and M. Zehender (2012): Transfemoral aortic valve implantation: bleeding events, related costs and outcomes, Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, in press.
  • Kaier, K. (2012): Economic implications of the dynamic relationship between antibiotic use and hospital-acquired infections, Value in Health 15(1): 87-93.
  • Lister, J., S. Stanisic, K. Kaier, C. Hagist, D. Gultyaev and S. Walzer (2012): Societal savings in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer receiving bevacizumab-based versus non-bevacizumab-based treatments in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain, ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research 4: 299-305.
  • Kaier, K. (2012): Economic modeling of the persistence of antimicrobial resistance, Natural Resource Modeling, 25(2): 388-402.
  • Kaier, K. and S. Moog (2012): Economic consequences of the demography of MRSA patients and the impact of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 10(4): 227-234.
  • Kaier, K. and U. Frank (2010): Measuring the externality of antibacterial use from promoting antimicrobial resistance, PharmacoEconomics 28(12): 1123-1128.
  • Kaier, K., C. Wilson, M. Chalkley, P. Davey, C. Suetens, H. Grundmann, M. de Kraker, M. Schumacher, M. Wolkewitz and U. Frank (2008): Health and economic impacts of antibiotic resistance in european hospitals - outlook on the BURDEN project, Infection 36(5): 492-494.